The Sharat's

Python's itertools.groupby callable

Read Later on Pocket or Instapaper.

The groupby utility from the itertools module can be used to group contiguous items in a sequence based on some property of the items.

Python has several utilities for working with lists and other sequence data types. In addition to a lot of such utilities being directly available as builtins (like map, filter, zip etc), the itertools module is dedicated to this purpose. In this article, I'll show the groupby callable from this standard library module. I hope to write more in the future on the other awesome stuff from this module.

Basic Usage

The point of itertools.groupby can be illustrated quite easily by applying to a list of zeroes and ones, to be grouped by their values. Check out the following example:

import itertools

numbers = [1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0]

for grouping_value, group_items in itertools.groupby(numbers):
    print('By', grouping_value, '->', *group_items)

This will produce the following output:

By 1 -> 1 1 1
By 0 -> 0 0
By 1 -> 1
By 0 -> 0 0 0
By 1 -> 1
By 0 -> 0

Now let's look at this, little by little. The groupby call takes one or, probably more often, two arguments:

An iterable (like a list or any other collection). Items in this collection will be grouped.
key (defaults to None)
A function that is applied to each element from iterable, the return values of which are used to do the grouping.
A generator that yields tuples of (grouping_value, iterable_of_group_elements) for each group that was found.

In the example above, we give the numbers list to the groupby call which yields six groups (as can be seen from the six lines of output). Since we haven't provided a value for the key argument, the grouping occurs on the elements themselves.

So now the output should make sense. The first group, where the grouping_value is 1 will contain three elements, the first three 1s in our list. The next group, where the grouping_value is 0 will contain the next two 0s in our list. This goes on until the list passed to groupby is exhausted.

It is important to note here that inside the tuples yielded by groupby, what we have are iterables that yield the group's items. They are not lists. More specifically, the tuple contains an object of type itertools._grouper, which is just an iterable over the values in the group. This point is elaborated in a section further below.

Non-contiguous Groups

This often comes up as a surprise to people new to itertools.groupby (it certainly did for me). The groups created are of contiguous regions only. For example, if we are trying group even and odd numbers from a collection ordered of numbers, just a call to groupby can produce surprising results:

import itertools

for is_even, number_group in itertools.groupby(range(10), key=lambda x: x % 2 == 0):
    print('Evens:' if is_even else 'Odds:', *number_group)

This produces the following (probably unexpected) result:

Evens: 0
Odds: 1
Evens: 2
Odds: 3
Evens: 4
Odds: 5
Evens: 6
Odds: 7
Evens: 8
Odds: 9

What we would've liked is something like the following:

Evens: 0 2 4 6 8
Odds: 1 3 5 7 9

If we search the ever helpful internet for a solution to this "problem", the answer seems to be to sort the initial list with the same key function and then pass the result to groupby. This is how that would work:

import itertools

def is_even(n):
    return n % 2 == 0

for is_even_val, number_group in itertools.groupby(sorted(range(10), key=is_even), key=is_even):
    print('Evens:' if is_even_val else 'Odds:', *number_group)

This produces an output much closer to what we wanted:

Odds: 1 3 5 7 9
Evens: 0 2 4 6 8

Now, ignoring the evil of pre-mature optimization, the fact that we are calling the key function twice might cause terminally serious itches to some developers. One (possibly silly) way around this is to store the results of the key function right next to the values, as a tuple and then unpack the values once we're done grouping. This would look like:

import itertools

def is_even(n):
    return n % 2 == 0

numbers = range(10)
keyed_numbers = [(is_even(n), n) for n in numbers]
sorted_numbers = sorted(keyed_numbers)

for is_even_val, pair_group in itertools.groupby(sorted_numbers, key=lambda pair: pair[0]):
    print('Evens:' if is_even_val else 'Odds:', *(pair[1] for pair in pair_group))

This produces the same output as the previous example, but calls the key function (is_even in this example's case) only once per item in our list.

Before you attempt the above apparent solution to performance issues, prove to yourself that firstly, you have a performance issue and that this piece of code is at least part of the reason for it. Otherwise you're probably just wasting your time.

Since this is arguably more useful, let's create an alternative groupby that will sort first and then call itertools.groupby:

import itertools

def sorted_groupby(iterable, key=None):
    yield from itertools.groupby(sorted(iterable, key=key), key=key)

We can use this function like:

for is_even_val, number_group in sorted_groupby(range(10), key=lambda x: x % 2 == 0):
    print('Evens:' if is_even_val else 'Odds:', *number_group)

This will produce the same output as below:

Odds: 1 3 5 7 9
Evens: 0 2 4 6 8

Groups are Iterables

I have mentioned this earlier in this article, but it's important enough to stress again. The group collections yielded by the groupby call are not lists. They are iterables that are rendered unusable upon yielding the next group. If you need the values, make sure you collect them before going to the next group.

For example, consider the following snippet:

import itertools
from pprint import pprint

names = ['Arthur', 'Trillian', 'ford', 'zaphod', 'slartibartfast']

by_casing = dict(itertools.groupby(names, key=str.istitle))

This produces the following output:

{False: <itertools._grouper object at 0x0000000002B6D278>,
 True: <itertools._grouper object at 0x0000000002B6BF28>}

The seemingly strange thing to notice here, is that although groupby returned two groupings, their grouped values are empty (hinted by the two empty lists output). But of course, groupby wouldn't return a group unless there's at least one item in the corresponding collection. So, what's going on?

This is the point I was getting at in the first paragraph of this section. The grouping collections (the values in the dictionary above) are de facto destroyed once we yield another group. So, if we wanted to construct a dictionary like this, we need to do something like the following:

import itertools
from collections import defaultdict
from pprint import pprint

names = ['Arthur', 'Trillian', 'ford', 'zaphod', 'slartibartfast']

by_casing = defaultdict(list)

for is_title, group_names in itertools.groupby(names, key=str.istitle):


This would produce the following output:

{False: ['ford', 'zaphod', 'slartibartfast'], True: ['Arthur', 'Trillian']}
['Arthur', 'Trillian']
['ford', 'zaphod', 'slartibartfast']

Just something to keep in mind.

The above snippet of code uses collections.defaultdict. I haven't written about this yet, but I intend to, in the near future (most likely within the 21st century).

A Really Bad DIY Implementation

Let's try and create an implementation of our own version of groupby, called insane_grouper. It should have the following characteristics:

  1. Take an iterable, and optionally a key function, interpreting like itertools.groupby.
  2. Group non-contiguous items as a single collections.
  3. Return a dictionary of each group's key value as the keys and the group's list of items as the values.
    • This is great since it goes well with our point 2 above. For computing non-contiguous groups, it is not possible to compute the groups lazily (why? is an exercise for the reader). So, might as well return a dictionary with all the groups.

This might look something like the following:

import itertools
from collections import defaultdict
from pprint import pprint

def insane_grouper(iterable, key=None):
    groups = defaultdict(list)

    for item in iterable:
        groups[item if key is None else key(item)].append(item)

    return dict(groups)

names = ['Arthur', 'ford', 'zaphod', 'Trillian', 'slartibartfast']
pprint(insane_grouper(names, str.istitle))

pprint(insane_grouper(range(10), lambda x: x % 2 == 0))

The output of this snippet is the following:

{False: ['ford', 'zaphod', 'slartibartfast'], True: ['Arthur', 'Trillian']}
{False: [1, 3, 5, 7, 9], True: [0, 2, 4, 6, 8]}

Usage Tips

Here's a few tips and cases where this can be used to quickly compute distinct collections of objects:

  1. A list of dictionaries can be grouped by the value against a particular key present in all (or some?) of the dictionaries in the list.
  2. The key function can return a tuple. This can be useful where we need to group the items by multiple criteria, instead of just one.


While the default behaviour of itertools.groupby may not always be what one expects, it is still useful. The important point to note is to understand the problem you're solving, consider the tools at your disposal and choose the right tool for the job. On that note, I'll leave you with another link to the itertools module.

Post tagged with

About the author

Hello, I am Shrikant! I love programming and quantitative financial topics. I mostly write about Python, JavaScript and Vim following my work and experiences. Thank you for checking out my blog! Say hello!

Please share your thoughts and feedback in the comments below. If you like my work, consider buying me a coffee, thanks!


← Home

This website uses cookies. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our use of cookies. Know more.